Home Books


The oceans are under serious threat from the overexploitation of marine life, pollution and the effects of global warming.


Sustaining the World’s Large Marine Ecosystems” presents the positive results of the application of a 5-module LME assessment and management approach for initiating ecosystem recovery and sustainability.  Examples are provided for the Benguela Current LME in Africa, the Yellow Sea LME in Asia, and the Baltic Sea LME in eastern Europe.


Two chapters on the Yellow Sea LME project describe the world’s largest effort underway to restore vital components of an LME, using the 5-module approach to ecosystem-based management.  China and Korea, the two participating countries in the LME project, will be reducing fishing effort by 30% and ramping up mariculture, using new systems for increasing water quality as one of the end products.  The restoration effort is framed by the concept of “carrying capacity,” using trophodynamic models based on gCm² estimates of productivity.


The book provides information on LMEs for use by the international community of scientists, resource ministers and managers, policy experts, students and the public.


Download Now


Comments on the LME approach:


“The effort to reduce the degraded status of LMEs will take time, well focused and creative policies, and funding.”

Achim Steiner, UN Under Secretary General and Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)


“The large majority of these LMEs are shared by two or more countries, underscoring the need for regional cooperation to advance sustainable LME management.”

Veerle Vandeweerd, Director of Environment and Energy Group of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)


“The pragmatic, science-based, joint management approach piloted by the Benguela Current LME project and other GEF LME projects must succeed – nothing less than the future of our coastal oceans and coastal communities is at stake.”

Alfred Duda, Senior Advisor, Global Environment Facility